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绿色环保的半导体照明的发展历程!

  有0人浏览   日期:2019-09-10

文章摘要: 半导体照明是革命性更新换代的全新照明,与前面的传统照明相比有很多的优势,当然也有不足之处。应该用历史的和辩证的观点,纵向和横向全面地看待分析,有助于更好地了解LED,让LED照明更好地发展。......

半导体照明是革命性更新换代的全新照明,与前面的传统照明相比有很多的优势,当然也有不足之处。应该用历史的和辩证的观点,纵向和横向全面地看待分析,有助于更好地了解LED,让LED照明更好地发展。

Semiconductor lighting is a revolutionary renewal of the new lighting, compared with the previous traditional lighting, there are many advantages, of course, there are also shortcomings. From a historical and dialectical point of view, we should look at the analysis vertically and horizontally in an all-round way, which will help us better understand the LED and make it develop better.

半导体照明可分为LED照明、OLED照明及LED激光照明。目前占据绝对主导地位的是蓝光芯片型白光LED照明,OLED照明也有一些产品亮相于许多展览交流会,而LED激光照明在汽车照明中开始显现其技术优势。这里主要涉及LED照明技术及相关內容。

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Semiconductor lighting can be divided into LED lighting, OLED lighting and LED laser lighting. At present, the absolute dominant position is blue chip white LED lighting, OLED lighting also has some products appeared in many exhibitions and exchanges, and LED laser lighting in automotive lighting began to show its technical advantages. Here mainly involves the LED lighting technology and related content.

作为照明第三个里程碑及第四代光源的蓝光芯片型白光LED,其发光原理是P型半导体中的多数载流子“空穴”和N型半导体中的多数载流子 “电子”,在外加电场作用下电子跨过两者之间PN结势垒进入PN结区及对方区域,在这过程中“空穴”与“电子”复合,释放能量发出蓝光,蓝光出射芯片后被封装层荧光粉吸收,荧光粉转换发出红绿色光,红绿色光与从荧光粉封装层透射出来的蓝光组成红绿蓝三基色光在空间各点混和成白光。

As the third milestone of illumination and the fourth generation of light source, blue-light chip white-light LED is based on the principle that most carriers in P-type semiconductor are "holes" and most carriers in N-type semiconductor are "electrons". Under the action of an applied electric field, electrons cross the PN barrier between them and enter the PN junction and the opposite region.“ The holes and electrons compounded, releasing energy to emit blue light. The blue light emitted from the chip was absorbed by the package phosphor, and the phosphor was converted to emit red-green light. The red-green light and blue light transmitted from the phosphor packaging layer formed the red-green-blue tricolor light mixing into white light at all points in space.

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LED光源属于固态半导体电子发光,属于一种特殊非线性的正电阻性,这使的它在额定工作点以下不需要稳流器等就可以点亮及正常工作。但它在额定工作点以上过载工作时,正电阻性越来越小,并趋于0电阻,其电压电流关系巨变,导致很小的电源电压波动,将会使电流大增,所以需要俗称的驱动电源来限制和稳定工作电流。光效是LED最重要指标之一,光效从1990年代最初的几Lm/W到2015年的303 Lm/W,其电光转换效率已高达44.5%,也就是说44.5%的电能可转换成可见光能,这是常规白炽灯的30倍,是普通常规荧光灯的4.5倍,约是高档稀土荧光灯及高压钠灯和金卤灯的3倍,其节能效果非常之显著。

LED light source belongs to solid-state semiconductor electroluminescence, and it belongs to a special non-linear positive resistance, which makes it light up and work normally below rated operating point without the need of current stabilizer. But when it is overloaded above the rated working point, the positive resistance becomes smaller and smaller, and tends to zero resistance. Its voltage-current relationship changes dramatically, resulting in very small fluctuation of power supply voltage, which will greatly increase the current. Therefore, it is necessary to use the commonly known driving power supply to limit and stabilize the working current. Light efficiency is one of the most important indicators of LED. From the first few Lm/W in 1990s to 303 Lm/W in 2015, the light efficiency has reached 44.5%. That is to say, 44.5% of the energy can be converted into visible light, which is 30 times as much as that of conventional incandescent lamp, 4.5 times as that of conventional fluorescent lamp, and about high-grade rare earth fluorescent lamp, high-voltage sodium lamp and metal halide lamp. Three times, its energy-saving effect is very remarkable.

此外,由于LED是电子器件,其正常使用寿命非常长,一般大功率LED 寿命5万小时,小功率LED 寿命甚至长达8-10万小时。LED电压低使其组合方便,可与电子驱动电路、控制电路彻底融合,与传统气体放电类光源的控制装置相比,其原理使得驱动电路结构大为优化,可靠性和寿命也大为提高,控制电路和智能化极其方便,真正开启了革命性照明和智能照明的新时代。

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In addition, because LED is an electronic device, its normal service life is very long. Generally, the life of high-power LED is 50,000 hours, and the life of low-power LED is even as long as 8-100,000 hours. The low voltage of LED makes it easy to assemble, and can be completely integrated with electronic driving circuit and control circuit. Compared with the control device of traditional gas discharge light source, its principle makes the structure of driving circuit greatly optimized, reliability and life greatly improved, control circuit and intellectualization are extremely convenient, and revolutionary lighting and intelligent lighting are really opened. New era.

没有LED就不可能有真正的智能照明及可见光通讯的发展。此外,LED的光谱虽然存在蓝光峰值,但其覆盖了整个可见光谱,且比传统照明中的三基色荧光灯、节能灯的光谱要连续和平滑得多。但是,LED电压低既是优点,也有不利的方面。

Without LED, there can be no real development of intelligent lighting and visible light communication. In addition, although there is a blue peak in the spectrum of LED, it covers the whole visible spectrum, and the spectrum of LED is much more continuous and smooth than that of traditional three-color fluorescent lamp and energy-saving lamp. However, low LED voltage has both advantages and disadvantages.

首先,电压低,可组合成各种电压和电流的应用形式,使终端产品规格品种繁多,导致大规模生产难度增加,使生产成本提高,同时使标准化、规范化难度大。

Firstly, low voltage can be combined into various application forms of voltage and current, which makes the specifications of terminal products varied, makes large-scale production more difficult, makes production cost higher, and makes standardization and standardization more difficult.

其次,主流LED存在光度和色度空间分布不均匀的固有缺陷,使提升光品质难度加大。

Secondly, mainstream LED has inherent defects of uneven spatial distribution of luminosity and chroma, which makes it more difficult to improve the quality of light.

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再次,LED发光点小、亮度高等对于显示技术的优点,在照明中却成为了刺眼、眩光甚至光生物安全的比较突出的缺点。

Thirdly, the advantages of low light-emitting point and high brightness of LED for display technology have become more prominent shortcomings in lighting, such as dazzling, glare and even light biological safety.

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