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股份的正确含义介绍

发布时间:2024-02-14 来源:http://www.lushangyun.com/

股权,从狭义上讲,是股东权的简称,是指基于股东身份地位而享有的各种权利。对应的法律依据是——我国《公司法》第4条规定,“ 公司股东依法享有资产收益、参与重大决策和选择管理者等权利。”

Equity, in a narrow sense, is the abbreviation of shareholder rights, referring to various rights enjoyed based on shareholder status. The corresponding legal basis is Article 4 of China's Company Law, which stipulates that "shareholders of a company have the right to enjoy asset returns, participate in major decision-making, and choose managers in accordance with the law."

但也有法学家认为,一般说的股权,实际上应是广义的,并非单指股东的权利,也包括股东的义务,是指股东获得股东身份地位,要享有股东权利及承担义务的总称。

But some legal scholars also believe that the general concept of equity should be broad, not just referring to the rights of shareholders, but also including their obligations. It refers to the general term for shareholders to obtain shareholder status, enjoy shareholder rights, and assume obligations.

之所以这样说,涉及常见的实践问题,例如:如果一老板进行股权转让,转让人能否只转让股东的权利;或者说股权转让时,仅仅转让的只是权利,是否包括股东义务? 从这方面可见,“股权”包含什么内容具有现实意义。

The reason for saying this involves common practical issues, such as: if a boss transfers equity, can the transferor only transfer the rights of shareholders; Or rather, when transferring equity, only rights are transferred, does it include shareholder obligations? From this perspective, it can be seen that the content of "equity" has practical significance.

在实践中,人们还常常用到“股份”这一概念,使用时存在误解,有时有人拿“股份”与“股权”作为同一概念;有人又将其截然分开,认为不是一回事。我国《公司法》第一百二十五条对“股份”进行了规定,“股份有限公司的资本划分为股份,每一股的金额相等。 公司的股份采取股票的形式。股票是公司签发的证明股东所持股份的凭证。”

In practice, people often use the concept of "shares", but there are misunderstandings when using it. Sometimes, some people use "shares" and "equity" as the same concept; Some people have completely separated it, believing that it is not the same thing. Article 125 of the Company Law of China stipulates that "shares" are the capital of a limited liability company, which is divided into shares, each of which has an equal amount. The company's shares are in the form of stocks. Stocks are certificates issued by the company to prove the shares held by shareholders

据此,总结一下一个基本法律常识,在我国公司法规定一共有两种公司形式:有限责任公司(即有限公司)和股份有限公司(股份公司);而严格上在股份有限公司中,才存在股份的说法。两个类型的公司都有股权的说法。

Based on this, to summarize a basic legal knowledge, there are two types of company forms stipulated in China's Company Law: limited liability company (i.e. limited liability company) and joint-stock limited company (joint-stock company); Strictly speaking, in a limited liability company, the concept of shares exists. The statement that both types of companies have equity.

也就是说,多少股数的说法,一般对应的是股份有限公司的资本份额。一个有限责任公司,说多少股,就不怎么规范了,而有限责任公司将出资金额或出资比例更合适规范。

That is to say, the number of shares generally corresponds to the capital share of a limited liability company. A limited liability company may not be standardized based on the number of shares it holds, while a limited liability company may have more appropriate regulations on the amount or proportion of its investment.

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这里面有个有意思的问题是,公司法中对“股权”是没有法律定义的,但法律条文中直接使用了“股权”的字眼,这导致了“什么是股权”这一问题只能按法理概念去界定理解。

An interesting issue here is that there is no legal definition of "equity" in the Company Law, but the term "equity" is directly used in legal provisions, which leads to the question of "what is equity" only being defined and understood according to legal concepts.

关于股份与股权的区别及关系,说来简单,但又专业,可概括为,“股份是股权作为一种权利所指向的客体(客体是个法律概念,可以理解成载体)。”在股份公司层面,无股份,自无股权可言;股份是表、是形式,股权是里,是本质。

Regarding the difference and relationship between shares and equity, it can be said simply but professionally, and can be summarized as follows: "Shares are the object pointed to by equity as a right (the object is a legal concept, which can be understood as a carrier)." At the level of a joint-stock company, without shares, there is no equity; Shares are the form and form, while equity is the essence.

后再总结一点:在我国不是所有的企业都叫公司;按照公司法规定设立的有两种有限责任公司,即我们常说的有限公司和股份公司;而股权只存在于公司中。不是公司制企业,就没有股权。

To summarize, not all enterprises in China are called companies; There are two types of limited liability companies established in accordance with the provisions of the Company Law, which are commonly referred to as limited liability companies and joint-stock companies; And equity only exists in the company. If it is not a corporate enterprise, there is no equity.

那么怎么区分是不是公司法上的公司呢? 看公司名字就行。我国法律明确规定,有限责任公司类型的,公司的名称中必须有“有限责任公司或有限公司”字样,股份有限公司类型的,公司的名称中必须有“股份有限公司或股份公司”字眼。

So how to distinguish whether it is a company under company law? Just look at the company name. According to Chinese law, for the type of limited liability company, the name of the company must include the words "limited liability company or limited liability company", and for the type of joint-stock limited company, the name of the company must include the words "limited liability company or joint-stock company".

实践中,我们遇到有的商人之间签署的是股权转让协议,但具体内容中却不涉及公司,这是非常不当的,所以说,“股权转让协议”不适用于所有出售企业的事情。

In practice, we encounter some businessmen signing equity transfer agreements, but the specific content does not involve the company, which is very inappropriate. Therefore, "equity transfer agreements" do not apply to all sales of enterprises.

广义的企业包括个体工商户,有时候并购企业还涉及个体工商户。可能有的人不理解“个体工商户”还有出售转让的吗 ?简单举个例子,大家就会明白。实践中有很多大酒店、度假村,名字听着响当当的,但从执照上,这个企业仅仅是“个体工商户”,拿的是个体户的营业执照。

Broadly speaking, enterprises include individual businesses, and sometimes mergers and acquisitions also involve individual businesses. Perhaps some people do not understand that "individual businesses" still sell and transfer? Just give a simple example, and everyone will understand. In practice, there are many large hotels and resorts with loud names, but from the license, this enterprise is only a "sole proprietorship", and it obtains a business license for a sole proprietorship.

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